Deep Blue - Kasparov, 1996
Deep Blue was a computer developed by IBM to beat Garry Kasparov, considered by some to be the greatest chess player ever. Deep Blue won this game, but Kasparov rebounded over the following 5 games to win 3 and draw 2, soundly beating the machine in the 1996 match. In the 1997 rematch, Deep Blue managed to win two games to Kasparov's one, taking the match 3.5 to 2.5. The overall increase in playing strength of Deep Blue between the first match and the second match was deemed minimal, though, as Kasparov suffered a bout of paranoia regarding the machine's strength, and played below his potential. Kasparov promptly challenged IBM to a rematch, but having scored a publicity coup, IBM promptly "retired" the machine and declined.
The game was played on February 10, 1996 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The machine had white. It is given here in algebraic chess notation.
The position after 10. ... Bb4
1. e4 c5 2. c3
It is more common to play 2. Nf3, but Kasparov has deep experience with that line, so White's opening book goes in a different direction.
2..... d5 3. exd5 Qxd5 4. d4 Nf6 5. Nf3 Bg4 6. Be2 e6 7. h3 Bh5 8. O-O Nc6 9. Be3 cxd4 10. cxd4 Bb4
A more common move here is Be7. This was a new approach by Kasparov, developing the bishop in an unusual way. The merit of the new move is debated. After this move, the computer left its opening book and began calculating its next move.
11. a3 Ba5 12. Nc3 Qd6 13. Nb5 Qe7?!
This allows White to make its pieces more active. Other moves, which would probably be better, include Qb8 and Qd5.
14. Ne5! Bxe2 15. Qxe2 O-O 16. Rac1 Rac8 17. Bg5
Black now has a problem, especially with the pinned knight on f6.
17.... Bb6 18. Bxf6 gxf6
Kasparov avoids ... Qxf6? because White would gain material with 19. Nd7. Note that Kasparov's king is now far more exposed.
19. Nc4! Rfd8 20. Nxb6! axb6 21. Rfd1 f5 22. Qe3!
This is an excellent place for White's queen.
The position after 22. ... Qf6
22... Qf6 23. d5!
This type of pawn sacrifice is typical of Kasparov's style of play. Indeed, Kasparov commented that he might have played 23. d5 himself in this position, since it hurts Black's pawn structure and opens up the board, and Black's exposed king suggests that there is probably a way to exploit the result. Kasparov has been attacking White's d-pawn, and the computer wisely decides to advance it for an attack instead of trying to defend it.
23... Rxd5 24. Rxd5 exd5 25. b3! Kh8?
Kasparov attempts to prepare a counter-attack by preparing to move his rook to the g file, but it will not work. Burgess suggests that 25.... Ne7 Rxc8+ would have been better, though White would still have some advantage. Indeed, after this point it is difficult to identify any move that will dramatically help Black.
26. Qxb6 Rg8 27. Qc5 d4 28. Nd6 f4 29. Nxb7
This is a very materialistic move, typical of computers; White grabs an undeveloped pawn for a small gain in material. However, Deep Blue has not identified any threat of checkmate from Black, so it simply acquires the material.
29.... Ne5 30. Qd5
30. Qxd4?? would lose to 30... Nf3+.
30.... f3 31. g3 Nd3
The move 31... Qf4 won't work, because of 32. Rc8! Qg5 33. Rc5!
The final position
32. Rc7 Re8
Kasparov is attacking, but the computer has correctly determined that the attack is not a real threat.
33. Nd6 Re1+ 34. Kh2 Nxf2 35. Nxf7+ Kg7 36. Ng5+ Kh6 37. Rxh7+ 1-0
After 37.... Kg6 38. Qg8+ Kf5 39. Nxf3, Black cannot meet the simultaneous threats of 40. Nxe1, 40. Rf7 and 40. Qd5+. Kasparov resigned.
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