Chess in the 19th Century
In 1801, the centers of chess activity are coffee houses n the major European cities like the Café de la Régence in Paris and Simpson’s Divan in London. As the century progresses, chess organization develops quickly with many chess clubs, chess books, and chess journals appearing.
In 1802, Ercole Del Rio, the anonymous Modenese, died.
In 1802, James Humphreys published the first chess book in America, Chess Made Easy.
In 1803, the Turk was being exhibited in London.
In 1803, George Walker, English chess writer and organizer, was born.
In 1804, a correspondence match between The Hague and Breda began.
In 1804, Kempelen, the inventor of The Turk, the first automaton, died.
In 1805, Jozsef Szen was born. He founded the Budapest Chess Club.
In 1806, Lionel Kieseritzky (1806-1853) was born.
In 1807, the London Chess Club was founded.
In 1809, the Zurich Chess Club was founded.
In 1810, Eugene Rousseau, Howard Staunton, and Johann Loewenthal were born.
In 1813, the first chess column to appear in a newspaper began in the Liverpool Mercury.
In 1813, Karl Jaenisch was born.
In 1815, Paul Bilguer was born.
In 1818, Adolf Anderssen (1818-1879) was born.
In 1819, Ernst Falkbeer was born.
In 1821, Ivan Butrimov published the first Russian manual on chess.
In 1821, Henry Buckle (1821-1862) was born.
In 1823, Johann Allgaier, a strong master from Vienna, died.
In 1823, George Walker wrote the first chess column to appear in a periodical, the Lancet.
In 1823, Louis-Charles La Bourdonnais defeated William Lewis in Paris (+4-1=0).
In April 1824, a correspondence match between Edinburgh and London began. Edinburgh won the match (+2-1=2), which was completed in July, 1826.
In 1827, Philadelphia started the first chess club in America.
In 1830, Henry Bird (1830-1908) was born.
In 1830, James Cochrane died.
In 1831, the famous Lewis chessmen were discovered on the isle of Lewis.
In 1831, Alexander MacDonnell defeated W. Fraser in a match in England (+3-1=1).
In 1833, Louis Paulsen (1833-1891) was born,
In 1834, Louis-Charles La Bourdonnais defeated Alexander MacDonnell in a series of six matches, played in England.
In 1835, Nathaniel Cook designed what is now known as the Staunton chessmen.
In 1835, Alexander MacDonnell died.
In 1836, La Bourdonnais and Mery published the first chess magazine, Le Palamede.
In 1836, Wilhelm Steinitz (1836-1900) was born.
In 1837, Ignatz Kolisch (1837-1889), George Mackenzie, and Paul Morphy (1837-1884) were born.
In 1837, George Walker founded England’s first chess magazine, The Philidorian.
In 1839, the New York Chess Club was formed by James Thompson.
In 1839, Josef Szen founded the Budapest Chess Club.
In 1839, Howard Staunton started the Chess Player’s Chronicle chess magazine.
In 1840, La Bourdonnais died in London.
In 1840, Henry Buckle won one of the first chess tournaments ever held, at the Cigar Divan in London.
In 1841, the Yorkshire Chess Association, the first chess association, was formed.
In 1841, Sam Loyd and Joseph Blackburne (1841-1924) were born.
In 1842, Johannes Zukertort was born (1842-1888)
In 1843, Eugene Rousseau defeated John Schulten in a match in New York (+13-8=0).
In April 1843, Saint Amant defeated Howard Staunton in a chess match at the Café de la Regence in Paris (+3-2=1).
In December 1843, Howard Staunton defeated Pierre Saint Amant in a match in Paris (+11-6=4).
In 1844, Washington DC and Baltimore played the first telegraph match.
In 1845, Cecil de Vere (1845-1875) was born.
In 1845, Charles Stanley wrote the first chess column in a US newspaper, The Spirit of the Times.
In December 1845, Charles Stanley defeated Eugene Rousseau in a match for the U.S. championship, in New Orleans (+15-8=8). It was the first organized chess event in the U.S.
In 1847, Alexandre Deschapelles died in Paris.
In 1848, Amos Burn (1848-1925) was born.
In 1849, Henry Buckle won a chess tournament at Ries’ Divan in London. It was a knockout tournament and the first modern chess tournament.
In 1850, Mikhail Chigorin (1850-1908) was born.
From May 7 to July 15, 1851, the first International Tournament was held in London. The top 8 winners were Adolf Anderssen, Marmaduke Wyvill, Elijah Williams, Howard Staunton, Jozsef Szen, Hugh Kennedy, Bernard Horwitz, and James Mucklow.
In 1853, Lionel Kieseritzky died.
In 1854, Grimshaw won the first problem-solving chess contest.
In 1854, Isidor Gunsberg was born.
In 1857, Yale founded the first American college chess club.
In 1857, Joszef Szen died.
In August 1857, Johann Loewenthal won the first British Chess Association (BCA) Congress, held in Manchester. 2nd place went to Samuel Boden.
From October 6 to November 10, 1857, the first American Chess Congress was held in New York. The top four players were Paul Morphy, Louis Paulsen, Theodor Lichtenhein, and Benjamin Raphael. There were 16 players.
In August 1858, Lowenthal won the 2nd BCA Congress, held in Birmingham. 2nd place went to Ernst Falkbeer.
In December 1858, Morphy defeated Anderssen in a match in Paris (+7-2=2).
In 1859, the first Russian chess magazine, Shakhmatny Listok, was published.
In August 1859, Amherst played Williams College in the first intercollegiate chess match.
In 1860, Jackson Showalter (1860-1935) was born.
In August 1860, Ignatz Kolisch (1837-1889) won the 3rd BCA Congress, held in Cambridge. 2nd place went to Charles Stanley.
In 1861, Louis Paulsen won the 4th BCA Congress, held in Bristol. 2nd place went to Samuel Boden.
In 1862, Siegbert Tarrasch (1862-1934) was born.
In 1862, Henry Buckle died.
In July 1862, Adolf Anderssen won the 1st British Chess Federation Congress, held in London. This was the world’s 2nd international tournament. 2nd place went to Louis Paulsen, followed by John Owen. This was the first round robin tournament.
In 1865, the British Counties’ Chess Association (CCA) was founded.
In 1865, Jacques Mieses (1865-1954) was born.
In 1866, Cecil de Vere won the 1st BCA Challenge Cup, held in London. This was the first British Chess Championship.
In August 1866, Steinitz defeated Anderssen (8-6) in a match in London.
In June 1867, Ignatz Kolisch won an international tournament in Paris. It was held during the World Exhibition at Paris. 2nd place went to Szymon Winawer, followed by Wilhelm Steinitz.
In September 1867, Gustav Neumann won the Dundee, Scotland International. 2nd place went to Steinitz.
In 1868, David Janowski (1868-1927), Richard Teichman (1868-1925), and Emanuel Lasker (1868-1941) were born.
In 1869, Joseph Blackburne and de Vere tied for first place in the 2nd BCA Challenge Cup, held in London. Blackburne won the play-off. This was the 2nd British Championship.
In 1870, Eugene Rousseau died.
In 1870, Geza Maroczy was born.
In August 1870, Adolf Anderssen won an international tournament in Baden-Baden. 2nd place went to Steinitz. 3rd-4th place went to Blackburne and Gustav Neumann.
In October 1870, Amos Burn and John Wisker tied in the 3rd BCA Congress, held in London. Wisker won the play-off for the 3rd British chess championship.
In 1871, Steinitz won the City of London handicap chess tournament.
In December 1871, George Mackenzie won the 2nd American Chess Congress, held in Cleveland.
In 1872, Harry Pillsbury was born.
In 1872, Pierre Saint-Amant died.
In 1872, the Canadian Chess Association was formed.
In August 1872, Steinitz won the 2nd British Chess Federation (BCF) Congress, held in London. 2nd place went to Blackburne.
In August 1872, Wisker won the 4th BCA Challenge Cup in London. This was the 4th British chess championship.
In September 1872, Steinitz defeated Zukertort in a match in London (+7-1=4).
In 1872, the City of London Chess Club defeated the Vienna Chess Club in a telegraph match that lasted until 1874 (1½- ½).
In March 1873, the first Oxford vs. Cambridge chess match started.
In May 1873, Ensor was the 1st Canadian Championship in Toronto.
In August 1873, Steinitz and Blackburne tied for 1st at the Vienna Intenational. Steinitz won the play-off. Adolf Anderssen took 3rd place.
In 1874, Carl Schlechter (1874-1918) was born.
In 1874, Howard Staunton died.
In July 1874, George Mackenzie won the 3rd American Chess Congress in Chicago.
In 1875, Cecil de Vere died.
In March 1876, Steinitz defeated Blackburne in a match in London (+7-0=0).
In August 1876, James Mason won the 4th American Chess Congress in Philadelphia.
In August 1876, George Mackenzie won the Café International, held in New York.
In October 1876, James Mason won the Clipper Tournament, held in New York.
In 1877, Frank Marshall was born.
In January 1878, the first telephone chess match was played, in England.
In February 1878, Cox won the 1st New York State Championship.
In August 1878, Zukertort and Winawer tied for 1st in an international tournament in Paris. Zukertort won the play-off.
In 1879, Adolf Anderssen died.
In August 1879, Berthold Englisch won the 1st German Chess Federation tournament in Leipzig.
In 1880, the Liverpool Chess Club played the Calcutta Chess Club. It was the first intercontinental telegraph match.
In 1880, Chigorin organized the fit chess club in Russia.
In January 1880, James Grundy and George Mackenzie tied for 1st in the 5th American Chess Congress, held in New York. Mackenzie won the play-off.
In 1881, the British Chess Magazine was first published.
In September 1881, Blackburne won the 2nd German Chess Federation tournament, held in Belin. 2nd place went to Zukertort, followed by Chigorin and Winawer.
In 1882, Akiba Rubinstein (1882-1961) was born.
In June 1882, Steinitz and Winawer tied for 1st in the Vienna International.
In June 1883, Zukertort won the London International Tournament. 2nd went to Steinitz, followed by Blackburne.
In June 1883, Curt von Bardeleben won the Vizayanagaram tournament in London.
In 1884, Paul Morphy died. He was 47.
In 1884, a new British Chess Association was inaugurated.
In 1885, Esling won the 1st Australian championship.
In July 1885, Isidor Gunsberg won the 1st British Chess Federation championship in London.
In August 1885, Gunsberg won the 4th German Chess Federation tournament in Hamburg, ahead of Blackburne, Englisch, Mason, and Tarrasch.
In 1886, Aron Nimzovich (1886-1935) was born.
In March 1886, Steinitz defeated Zukertort in the first World Chess Championship (+10-5=5). The match was held in New York, St. Louis, and New Orleans.
In August 1886, Blackburne and Burn tied for 1st in the 2nd British Chess Federation championship, held in London. Blackburne won the play-off.
In 1887, Max Judd defeated Albert Hodges in St Louis (+5-2=2).
In December 1887, Burn and Gunsberg tied fir 1st inthe 3rd British Chess Federation Congress.
In 1888, Jose Capablanca (1888-1942) was born.
In 1888, Johannes Zukertort died.
In 1888, the U.S. Chess Association formed.
In September 1888, Jackson Showalter won the 1st United States Chess Association tournament in Cincinnati.
In 1889, Richard Reti (1889-1929) was born.
In February 1889, Steinitz defeated Chigorin in the 2nd World Chess Championship, held in Havana (10½ -6½).
In May 1889, Chigorin and Weiss tied in the 6th American Chess Congress.
In September 1889, Siegbert Tarrasch won the 6th BCF Congress, held in Manchester. 2nd place went to Blackburne, followed by Bird and Mackenzie.
In February 1890, Showalter won the 3rd USA Chess Association tournament in St Louis.
In 1891, George Mackenzie and Louis Paulsen died.
In January 1891, Steinitz defeated Gunsberg in the 3rd World Chess Championship, held in New York (10.5-8.5).
In August 1891, Showalter won the 4th USA Chess Association tournament in Lexington, Kentucky.
In 1892, Alexander Alekhine (1892-1946) was born.
In February 1892, Steinitz defeated Chigorin in the 4th World Chess Championship, held in Havana (+10-8=5).
In 1892, Samuel Lipschuetz defeated Showalter in a match in New York (+7-1=7).
In 1893, the first of a series of cable chess matches between the USA and England began.
In October 1893, Emanuel Lasker won the New York International. 2nd place went to Adolf Albin.
In November 1893, Chigorin and Tarrasch drew a match in St Petersburg (11-11).
In May 1894, Emanuel Lasker defeated Steinitz in the 5th World Chess Championship, held in New York, Philadelphia, and Montreal (12-7).
In August 1894, Hodges defeated Showalter in New York (+5-3=1).
In September 1894, Tarrasch won the 9th German Chess Federation tournament in Leipzig.
In September 1895, Harry Pillsbury won at the international tournament in Hasings. 2nd place went to Chigorin, followed by Lasker, Tarrasch, and Steinitz.
In January 1896, Lasker won at St. Petersburg, followed by Steinitz, Pillsbury, and Chigorin.
In March 1896, USA defeated the UK in the first USA-UK cable match.
In August 1896, Lasker won at the Nuremberg International. 2nd place went to Maroczy, followed by Pillsbury and Tarrasch.
In October 1896, Chigorin and Charousek tied for 1st at Budapest. Chigorin won the play-off. Pillsbury took 3rd place.
In January 1897, Lasker defeated Steinitz in the 6th World Chess Championship, held in Moscow (+10-2=5).
In April 1897, Harry Pillsbury defeated Jackson Showalter in New York (11.5-9.5).
In April 1898, Pillsbury defeated Showalter in New York (8-4).
In July 1898, Tarrasch and Pillsbury tied for 1st in the Kaiser Jubilee in Vienna. Tarrasch won the play-off. 3rd place went to Janowski.
In July 1899, Emanuel Lasker won the London International. He was followed by Janowski, Pillsbury, and Maroczy.
In October 1899, Mikhail Chigorin won the 1st All-Russia championship.
– Bill Wall
Tags: 19th century chess